Further Reading: Network Protocols and Architectures (WS 10/11)
Adapted from Course
University of Massachusetts
CMPSCI 653 (Fall 2002)
by Professor Jim Kurose
Note: The documents below are password-protected, in order to allow access ONLY by students in this course. If you're a student, you've received access information in class.
- Part 1. Architecture and Protocols: Mechanisms
- Part 2. Protocols: Implementation Principles
- Part 3. Network architecture: the big picture
- Part 4. Protocols: Network algorithmics
- Part 5. Simulation
Part 1. Architecture and Protocols: Mechanisms
protocol mechanisms/techniques are commonly found in network protocols
and why are they used? Hard-state versus soft-state, use of
randomization, handling scale (aggregation in routing, flow
management), exploiting redundancy, fault tolerance, announce/listen
service location, error control, indirection, timer-based protocols.
[Note: A solid understanding of Internet protocols, a passing
understanding if ATM, and only slight exposure to the telephone
network is assumed below. Background reading on ATM, and the telephone
- ATM Fundamentals  (IEC tutorial, Sections 1–5, 9, 10), ATM  (Kurose&Ross, Section 5.9)
(Public Switched Telephone Network) Fundamentals  (IEC tutorial)
Signaling protocols are used in telephone networks, connection-oriented data networks (e.g., ATM) and in the Internet. But they look very different, and have very different mechanisms because of the differences in the networks, and the services they support
- SS7 signaling in telephone networks: Signaling System 7  (IEC tutorial). (Optional reading: SS7 tutorial , Performance Technologies)
- Q.2931 signaling in ATM networks: Chapter 10: "Call and Connection Control"  in ATM Networks, U. Black.
- optional: ITU-T Recommendation Q.2931 
- Signaling in the Internet: Zhang, L., Deering, S., Estrin, D., Shenker, S., and Zappala, D., "RSVP: A New Resource ReSerVation Protocol,"  IEEE Network, September 1993. RSVP , Section 6.8 in Kurose&Ross, 1st ed.
- Separation of control and data.
Analysis of PSTN, ATM and Internet signaling. FTP versus HTTP.
- Hard-state versus soft state.
- S. Raman, S. McCanne, "A model, analysis, and protocol framework for soft state-based communication ," ACM Sigcomm '99.
- Optional reading: P. Sharma, D. Estrin, S. Floyd, V.Jacobson, " Scalable Timers for Soft State Protocols ", IEEE INFOCOM 1997, Kobe, Japan.
- Ethernet backoff: "CSMA/CD: Ethernet's Multiple Access Protocol ," section 5.5.2 in [Kurose, Ross]
- Floyd, S., and Jacobson, V., "The Synchronization of Periodic Routing Messages. " IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, V.2 N.2, p. 122–136, April 1994.
- Floyd, S., Jacobson, V., Liu, C., McCanne, S., and Zhang, L., "A Reliable Multicast Framework for Light-weight Sessions and Application Level Framing,"  IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking. (just up through section 3.4)
- D. Shah, P. Giaccone, B. Prabhakar, "Efficient Randomized Algorithms for Input-Queued Switch Scheduling ," IEEE Micro Magazine, 2002. (just the first 3.5 pages)
- M. Christiansen, K. Jeffay, D. Ott, F. Smith, "Tuning RED for Web Traffic ," Proc. ACM Sigcomm '00 (just the description of RED, section 2).
- IP multicast model, "Multicast Routing and IGMP, " section 4.8 in [Kurose,Ross] (note also randomization in IGMP).
- Mobile IP, "Mobility at the Network Layer ," section 4.9 in [Kurose,Ross].
- A. Keromytis, V. Misra, D. Rubenstein, "SOS: Secure Overlay Services ," ACM Sigcomm 2002
- I. Stoica, D. Adkins, S. Zhuang, S. Shenker, S. Surana, "Internet Indirection Infrastructure ," ACM Sigcomm 2002
- Multiplexing resources:
packet-level, burst-level, call-level
- Scheduling and Policing Mechanisms,  Section 6.7 in [Kurose,
- optional: R. Parekh, R. Gallager, "A generalized processor sharing approach to flow control in integrated services networks: the single-node case ," IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 1993.
- S. Floyd, V. Jacobson, "Link-sharing and resource management models for packet networks ," IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (TON) August 1995
- Routing, Routing in the Telephone Network,  sections 11.1–11.4 in An Engineering Approach to Computer Networking, S. Keshav, Addison Wesley, 1997. Call-level multiplexing: blocking, trunk reservation.
- Scheduling and Policing Mechanisms,  Section 6.7 in [Kurose, Ross]
- Virtualization: networks over networks
- The internet as an overlay, "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication ", V. Cerf, R. Kahn, IEEE Transactions on Communications, May, 1974, pp. 637–648.
- Overlay Networks. D. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, F. Kaashoek, R. Morris, "The case for reslient overlay networks ," Proc. HotOS VIII, May 2001.
- VPNs. "Scalability Implications of Virtual Private networks ," J. DeClercq, O. Paridaens, IEEE Communications Magazine, May 2002.
- IP over ATM, "IP over ATM: Classical IP, NHRP, LANE, MPOA, PAR, " J. Xu. (sections 1, 2, 3).
- Designs for Scale:
- J.B.S. Haldane, "On Being the Right Size ," 1928. Reprinted in J.B.S. Haldane "On Being the Right Size and Other Essays", (Ed: J. Maynard Smith) Oxford University Press, 1985.
Part 2. Protocols: Implementation Principles
Protocol implementation principles, with case studies.
- "15 Implementation Principles ," draft chapter from G. Varghese
- "… and 15 examples ," draft chapter by G. Varghese
- Folklore of Protocol Design,  R. Perlman
In the next offering of this course, it will be doing a walkthrough of the linux cTCP/IP code. It would be a nice way to wrap up the impementation principles section.
Part 3. Network architecture: the big picture
Lessons from the Internet (and other networks: ATM, telephony); circuit switching versus packet switching revisited; policy, flexibility, and optimized performance.
- Saltzer, Reed, Clark: "End-to-End arguments in System Design "
- Clark: "The Design Philosophy of the DARPA Internet Protocols ":
- Blumenthal, Clark, "Rethinking the design of the Internet: The end to end arguments vs. the brave new world " ACM Trans. on Internet Technology
- David P. Reed, Jerome H. Saltzer, and David D. Clark , Active Networking and End-To-End Arguments ,
Rise of the Stupid Network , D. Isenberg, Computer Telephony,
August 1997, pg 16–26. (optional background: AIN Overview , IEC
Pablo Molinero-Fernadez, Nick McKeown, Hui Zhang, "Is IP going to take over the world?,"  ACM HotNets 2002.
Part 4. Protocols: Network algorithmics
Self stabilization (routing examples), broadcast/controlled flooding (link state broadcast, ad hoc routing), Kelly's optimization framework (congestion control example), control theory viewpoint of closed loop control (TCP)
- A. Arora. Stabilization.  Invited
chapter, to appear in Encyclopedia of Distributed Computing, edited by
Partha Dasgupta and Joseph E. Urban, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.
- optional (recommended): A. Aurora, M. Gouda, "Distributed Reset, " IEEE Transactions on Computers, 1995.
- optional: M. Schneider. Self-stabilization . ACM Computing Surveys, 25(1):45–67, March 1993.
- optional (recommended): Overheads  on self-stabilization from George Varghese
- Steven Low, "Optimization Based Congestion Control for the Internet "
- The network as a group of fluid flows
- T. Bu, D. Towsley, "Fixed Point Approximation for TCP behavior in an AQM Network, " Proceedings of 2001 ACM SIGMETRICS
- V. Misra, W. Gong, D. Towsley, "A Fluid-based Analysis of a Network of AQM Routers Supporting TCP Flows with an Application to RED " Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM'00, (Stockholm, Sweden, September 2000)
- Optional (we'd cover it if we had more time). Shai Herzog, Scott Shenker, and Deborah Estrin, "Sharing the ``cost'' of multicast trees: An axiomatic analysis," IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 5, pp. 847–860, Dec. 1997.
Part 5. Simulation
Principles of discrete event simulation, analysis of simulation output, simulation pitfalls.
- Introduction to simulation (optional reading). Chapters 24 and 25 in The Art of Computer Systems Performance Analysis, R. Jain, Wiley 1992
- Confidence Intervals , S. Waner, from Finite Mathematics and Applied Calculus (online).
- Discete Event Simulation Program  (code walkthrough)
- ns tutorials:
- the most official tutorial from the ns www site: http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/tutorial/index.html 
- ns by example: http://nile.wpi.edu/NS/ 
- 5th VINT/ns tutorial/workshop 
- ns-2 tcl program that we covered in class (with execution trace and with line numbers).  Here is the tcl file  (only) with no line numbers
- Network Protocols and Architectures (VL+UE) 
- NPA WS 10/11 – Literature 
- NPA WS 10/11 – Tutorials 
- NPA WS 10/11 – Exam 
- NPA WS 10/11 – Lecture evaluation