Inhalt des Dokuments
- 1. BGP routing policies in ISP networks
- 3. Power Awareness in Network Design and Routing
- 5. Unified Energy-Efficient Routing for Multi-Hop Wireless Networks
- 7. In VINI Veritas: Realistic and Controlled Network Experimentation
- 9. Designing Extensible IP Router Software
- 11. Why the Internet only just works
- 12. Tussle in Cyberspace: Defining Tomorrow's Internet
- 14. Networking Named Content
- 21. Improving Content Delivery - Using Provider-aided Distance Information
- 22. Ant-Based Multi-path Routing for Wireless Mesh Networks
1. BGP routing policies in ISP networks
Student/Bearbeiter: Ghulam Sanaie Ghaznawi; Supervisor/Betreuer: Luigi Iannone
The Internet has quickly evolved into a vast global network owned and operated by thousands of different administrative entities. During this time, it became apparent that vanilla shortest-path routing would be insufficient to handle the myriad operational, economic, and political factors involved in routing. ISPs began to modify routing configurations to support routing policies, i.e., goals held by the router's owner that controlled which routes were chosen and which routes were propagated to neighbors. BGP, originally a simple path-vector protocol, was incrementally modified over time with a number of mechanisms to support policies, adding substantially to the complexity. Much of the mystery in BGP comes not only from the protocol complexity but also from a lack of understanding of the underlying policies and the problems ISPs face which they address. In this paper we shed light on goals operators have and their resulting routing policies, why BGP evolved the way it did, and how common policies are implemented using BGP. We also discuss recent and current work in the field that aims to address problems that arise in applying and supporting routing policies.
- Matt Caesar and Jennifer Rexford. BGP routing policies in ISP networks (PDF, 164,2 KB), IEEE Network Magazine, special issue on interdomain routing, November/December 2005. Earlier version appears as UC Berkeley Technical Report UCB/CSD-05-1377, March 2005.
3. Power Awareness in Network Design and Routing
Student/Bearbeiter: Ashuqullah Alizai; Supervisor/Betreuer: Luigi Iannone
Exponential bandwidth scaling has been a fundamental driver of the growth and popularity of the Internet. However, increases in bandwidth have been accompanied by increases in power consumption, and despite sustained system design efforts to address power demand, significant technological challenges remain that threaten to slow future bandwidth growth. In this paper we describe the power and associated heat management challenges in today's routers. We advocate a broad approach to addressing this problem that includes making powerawareness a primary objective in the design and configuration of networks, and in the design and implementation of network protocols. We support our arguments by providing a case study of power demands of two standard router platforms that enables us to create a generic model for router power consumption. We apply this model in a set of target network configurations and use mixed integer optimization techniques to investigate power consumption, performance and robustness in static network design and in dynamic routing. Our results indicate the potential for significant power savings in operational networks by including power-awareness.
- Chabarek J., Sommers J., Barford P., Estan C., Tsiang D., Wright S. Power Awareness in Network Design and Routing. INFOCOM 2008. The 27th Conference on Computer Communications. IEEE
5. Unified Energy-Efficient Routing for Multi-Hop Wireless Networks
Student/Bearbeiter: Sayed Adullah Walizai; Supervisor/Betreuer: Harald Schiöberg
In this paper, we develop an energy-efficient routing scheme that takes into account three key wireless system elements: transmission power; interference; and residual energy. Since energy is a scarce resource, many energy-aware routing algorithms have been proposed to improve network performance. However, previous algorithms have been designed for a subset of these three main elements, which could limit their applicability. Thus, our contribution is here to develop a unified routing algorithm called the Energy-efficient Unified Routing (EURo) algorithm that accommodates any combination of these above key elements. We show via simulations that EURo outperforms the state-of-the-art.
- Sungoh Kwon and Ness B. Shroff. Unified Energy-Efficient Routing for Multi-Hop Wireless Networks. INFOCOM 2008. The 27th Conference on Computer Communications. IEEE
7. In VINI Veritas: Realistic and Controlled Network Experimentation
Student/Bearbeiter: Andrii Soloviov; Supervisor/Betreuer: Bernhard Ager
This paper describes VINI, a virtual network infrastructure that allows network researchers to evaluate their protocols and services in a realistic environment that also provides a high degree of control over network conditions. VINI allows researchers to deploy and evaluate their ideas with real routing software, traffic loads, and network events. To provide researchers flexibility in designing their experiments, VINI supports simultaneous experiments with arbitrary network topologies on a shared physical infrastructure. This paper tackles the following important design question: What set of concepts and techniques facilitate flexible, realistic, and controlled experimentation (e.g., multiple topologies and the ability to tweak routing algorithms) on a fixed physical infrastructure? We first present VINI's high-level design and the challenges of virtualizing a single network. We then present PL-VINI, an implementation of VINI on PlanetLab, running the “Internet In a Slice”. Our evaluation of PL-VINI shows that it provides a realistic and controlled environment for evaluating new protocols and services.
- Andy Bavier, Nick Feamster, Mark Huang, Larry Peterson, and Jennifer Rexford. In VINI Veritas: Realistic and Controlled Network Experimentation (PDF, 309,4 KB). Sigcomm 2006
9. Designing Extensible IP Router Software
Student/Bearbeiter: Thomas Krenc; Supervisor/Betreuer: Dan Levin
Many problems with today's Internet routing infrastructure—slow BGP convergence times exacerbated by timerbased route scanners, the difficulty of evaluating new protocols—are not architectural or protocol problems, but software problems. Router software designers have tackled scaling challenges above all, treating extensibility and latency concerns as secondary. At this point in the Internet's evolution, however, further scaling and security issues require tackling latency and extensibility head-on.
We present the design and implementation of XORP, an IP routing software stack with strong emphases on latency, scaling, and extensibility. XORP is event-driven, and aims to respond to routing changes with minimal delay—an increasingly crucial requirement, given rising expectations for Internet reliability and convergence time. The XORP design consists of a composable framework of routing processes, each in turn composed of modular processing stages through which routes flow. Extensibility and latency concerns have influenced XORP throughout, from IPC mechanisms to process arrangements to intra-process software structure, and leading to novel designs. In this paper we discuss XORP's design and implementation, and evaluate the resulting software against our performance and extensibility goals.
- Mark Handley, Eddie Kohler, Atanu Ghosh, Orion Hodson, Pavlin Radoslavov. Designing Extensible IP Router Software (PDF, 335,3 KB). In Proceedings of the 2nd USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI) 2005.
11. Why the Internet only just works
Student/Bearbeiter: Khwaja Zubair Sediqi; Supervisor/Betreuer: Juhoon Kim
The core Internet protocols have not changed significantly in more than a decade, in spite of exponential growth in the number of Internet users and the speed of the fastest links. The requirements placed on the net are also changing, as digital convergence finally occurs. Will the Internet cope gracefully with all this change, or are the cracks already beginning to show? In this paper I examine how the Internet has coped with past challenges resulting in attempts to change the architecture and core protocols of the Internet. Unfortunately, the recent history of failed architectural changes does not bode well. With this history in mind, I explore some of the challenges currently facing the Internet.
- Mark Handley. Why the Internet only just works (PDF, 199,9 KB). BT Technology Journal, Vol. 24, No. 3, July 2006
12. Tussle in Cyberspace: Defining Tomorrow's Internet
Student/Bearbeiter: Michal Holowaty; Supervisor/Betreuer: Harald Schiöberg
The architecture of the Internet is based on a number of principles, including the self-describing datagram packet, the end-to-end arguments, diversity in technology and global addressing. As the Internet has moved from a research curiosity to a recognized component of mainstream society, new requirements have emerged that suggest new design principles, and perhaps suggest that we revisit some old ones. This paper explores one important reality that surrounds the Internet today: different stakeholders that are part of the Internet milieu have interests that may be adverse to each other, and these parties each vie to favor their particular interests. We call this process "the tussle." Our position is that accommodating this tussle is crucial to the evolution of the network's technical architecture. We discuss some examples of tussle, and offer some technical design principles that take it into account.
- David D. Clark, John Wroclawski, Karen R. Sollins, and Robert Braden. Tussle in Cyberspace: Defining Tomorrow's Internet (PDF, 405,1 KB). IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol. 13, No. 3, June 2005
14. Networking Named Content
Student/Bearbeiter: Robin Rainer Kuck; Supervisor/Betreuer: Ruben Merz
Network use has evolved to be dominated by content distribution and retrieval, while networking technology still speaks only of connections between hosts. Accessing content and services requires mapping from the what that users care about to the network's where. We present Content-Centric Networking (CCN) which treats content as a primitive decoupling location from identity, security and access, and retrieving content by name. Using new approaches to routing named content, derived heavily from IP, we can simultaneously achieve scalability, security and performance. We implemented our architecture's basic features and demonstrate resilience and performance with secure file downloads and VoIP calls.
- Van Jacobson, Diana K. Smetters, James D. Thornton, Michael F. Plass, Nicholas H. Briggs, and Rebecca L. Braynard. Networking Named Content (PDF, 968,8 KB). Fifth International Conference on Emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies (CoNEXT '09), Rome, Italy, 2009.
21. Improving Content Delivery - Using Provider-aided Distance Information
Student/Bearbeiter: Robert Philipp Skupin; Supervisor/Betreuer: Georgios Smaragdakis
Content delivery systems constitute a major portion of today's Internet traffic. While they are a good source of revenue for Internet Service Providers (ISPs), the huge volume of content delivery traffic also poses a significant burden and traffic engineering challenge for the ISP. The difficulty is due to the immense volume of transfers, while the traffic engineering challenge stems from the fact that most content delivery systems themselves utilize a distributed infrastructure. They perform their own traffic flow optimization and realize this using the DNS system. While content delivery systems may, to some extent, consider the user's performance within their optimization criteria, they currently have no incentive to consider any of the ISP's constraints. As a consequence, the ISP has "lost control" over a major part of its traffic. To overcome this impairment, we propose a solution where the ISP offers a Provider-aided Distance Information System (PaDIS). PaDIS uses information available only to the ISP to rank any client-host pair based on distance information, such as delay, bandwidth or number of hops.
In this paper we show that the applicability of the system is significant. More than 70% of the HTTP traffic of a major European ISP can be accessed via multiple different locations. Moreover, we show that deploying PaDIS is not only beneficial to ISPs, but also to users. Experiments with different content providers show that improvements in download times of up to a factor of four are possible. Furthermore, we describe a high performance implementation of PaDIS and show how it can be deployed within an ISP.
- Ingmar Poese, Benjamin Frank, Bernhard Ager, Georgios Smaragdakis, Anja Feldmann. Improving Content Delivery using Provider-aided Distance Information (PDF, 303,0 KB). Internet Measurement Conference 2010
22. Ant-Based Multi-path Routing for Wireless Mesh Networks
Student/Bearbeiter: Niklas Semmler; Supervisor/Betreuer: Ruben Merz
Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are envisioned as a flexible alternative for providing Internet access. In this context, one of the key challenges is to improve the capacity. One approach is to spread the load along multiple paths. Results achieved in wired networks using ant-based systems for this purpose make them attractive candidates. However, applying similar techniques directly to WMNs may be counter-productive due to the characteristics of multi-hop wireless communications, in particular interferences. In this paper, a novel hybrid approach, based on recording the Internet gateway used by ants and marking pheromone trails accordingly, is presented. Results are promising and indicate that adaptive and efficient load distribution can be achieved.
- Laurent Paquereau, Bjarne E. Helvik. Ant-Based Multipath Routing for Wireless Mesh Networks. In Proceedings of EvoApplications (2) 2011. pp. 31–40